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SACRED ANIMALS SOURCES
"Snake Worship in Konkan",Light House, Vol. 2, No.2, p. 6,2002
Avas and Naagaon are two places in the Konkan, where snake worship is carried out.

Aiyar, R.K.,"South Indian Serpent-lore",Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. XXII, No. 4, pp. 424 - 430, The Mythic Society, Bangalore,1932
All classes of Hindus venerate the serpent, and men and women in every part of India worship it.

Bedi, R.,"Mating and Habitat - Auspicious Animal",Elephant - Lord of the Jungle, pp. 8 - 15, National Book Trust, New Delhi,1969
In Ancient India the elephant was held in high esteem. The shastras forbade the killing of an elephant. Till date we worship Ganesha, the elephant headed deity. People throughout the world revere elephants.

Bhattacharyya, A.,"The Sun and the Serpent lore of Benga",Firma KLM Private Limited, Calcutta,1977
In the first half of the book the author discusses the Sun - god and its myth and legends, festival and dances related to Sun - god and Sun- cult in Literature. In the second half of the book the author discusses about a serpent goddess, the rites of the serpent goddess, serpent legends, serpent proverbs and beliefs, the snake story in folk-entertains and serpent motifs in folk art. The author has described how the two diverse elements of nature, the sun and the serpent, are related in their action and attitude towards mankind.

Birdwood, G.C.M.,"The Art of India",Nanda Book Service, Delhi,1997
This is the most authoritative and important reference work on Indian Art. The book contains a wealth of information and is amply illustrated. Part I of the book discussed the sacred animals, plants and trees, places, mountains and rivers

Crooke, W.,"Animal Worship",Folklore of India, pp. 315-346, Aryan Books International, New Delhi,1993
Many animals have been worshipped in India since ancient times. It has been a part of their folklore, myth and beliefs. They believed that the spirit of their ancestors appeared in the form of animals. Animals are worshipped or respected for their qualities, their wisdom and their use to human beings.The origin of animal worship may be traced to many different sources. Many of the animals are regarded as the vahanas (vehicles) of different deities. Worship of animals like horse, tiger, dog, cow, goat, insect and fish is briefly discussed here

Dubois, J.A.,"Worship Paid To Animals",Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, London,1906
Animal worship is one of the lowest forms of all idolatry worship and is also foundation of all the idolatry religion in India. All living creatures are either useful or harmful to man and hence it was better to worship them.

Fergusson, J.A.,"Tree and Serpent Worship",Indological Book House, Delhi,1971
This book contains discusses the illustrations of Mythology and Art in 1st and 4th century A.D., from the sculptures of the Buddhist Topes at Sanchi and Amaravati. The Introductory essay deals with the prevalence of Tree and Serpent Worship in the Western World. Part II continues the discussion with reference to Eastern Asia. The Topes are then described and explained.

Israel, S., and Sinclair, T., (eds.),"Animals in Mythology, Art and Folklore",Indian Wildlife, pp. 28-33, APA Publications (HZ) Ltd., Singapore,1989
Seldom has any culture deeply and so consistently associated with animals and trees as that of Hinduism and Buddhism. Religious belief, mythology and folklore combined to invest them with a sanctity that was reiterated throughout the history and endures even today.

Jha, A.,"Ecological Prudence of the Lepchas",Development Alternatives, Vol.8, No.6, p. 5-6 June,1998
The Lepchas, tribal communities of Sikkim, have a unique conservation philosophy that preserves rare migratory birds and animals.

Kamat, K.,"Animals of Indian Mythology",The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. LXXXV, No.2,June,1994
Ancient Indians had recognized the animals right to co-exist with man and therefore they were loved, nurtured and even worshipped. The activities of ancient Indians were woven around animals. Animals have been mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. Today we are neither adopting ancient Indians compassionate attitude, nor scientific approach of the westerners towards these animals and hence we are heading towards a catastrophe.

Krishna, N.,"Sanctified, and yet killed",The Hindu Folio, pp. 40-41, September,1998
Snakes are a source of fear and fascination throughout the world. Most ancient civilization revered the mystical qualities of the snake. In India, it has a special place in the culture and civilization. Special festivals for snakes such as Nagapanchami and Ananta chaturdasi are performed.

Kumar, S.,"Serpent God Worship Ritual in Kerala",Indian Folklore Research Journal, Vol. 5., No. 8, pp. 104 – 122,2008
Serpent god worship is common in parts of India, like Kerala, Bengal and Karnataka. In Kerala, one way of worshiping serpent gods is by laying symmetrically designed floor drawings, that are called `Kalams’, with bright and colourful powders made from natural objects. Beautiful pictures of serpent gods are drawn using these powders on ground smeared with cow dung in the first phase of the ritual. Following this, a senior priest consecrates the floor drawings and two types of physical performances follow. The three performances are orchestrated by wild rhythmic music, using folk instruments. In the next stage, a verbal recitation is followed by the main performance of the ritual, the dancing of the female oracles.

Marimuthu, G.,"The Sacred Flying Fox of India – A Few Privileged Colonies of flying foxes are protected by time-honoured Tradition",Bat Conservation International, Vol.6, No. 2, pp 10-11,1988
The Indian flying foxes (Pteropus giganteus) are considered sacred at 4 places near Madurai in Tamilnadu, a state of southern India. These bats are believed to get protection from the deities associated with the roosting sites at these 4 sites. Hence, due to the fear of deities, local people do not allow hunting of the Indian flying foxes.

Moses, S.T.,"Turtle Lore",Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. XXXIX, No. 2, pp. 117 - 128, The Mythic Society, Bangalore,1948
The tortoise has always been a part of the Hindu mythology and folklore. Hindus believe that the earth is supported by an elephant, which in turn stands on the back of the tortoise.

Nair, P.T.,"Peacock Worship in India and Abroad",Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. LXV, No. 1, pp. 1 - 15, The Mythic Society, Bangalore,1974
Peacock an original inhabitant of South India is worshipped all over Asia. The worship of the peacock as the vehicle of god Subramania or Muruga and goddess Saraswati is deep rooted in India. Today the bird is part and parcel of all major religions of the world.

Nair, R.G.,"Snake Worship in India",New Delhi,1993
The author discusses the history, legend and the tradition of snake cult in India from the Vedas, Epics and puranas. In the second chapter, the author has concentrated on the serpent worship in Kerala and he discusses the serpent kavu, special puja and festival for snake cult in Kerala and Nagercoil in Tamilnadu. In the third chapter, he discusses the Omnipresence of serpent cult with special mention to tirtha and Naga Shesha and Vasuki temples in Varanasi, Nagpur, Gujarat and the snake goddess Manasa devi in Bengal. In the fourth chapter, he discusses about the festival for the snake god and finally he describes the snake cult in Art

Noble, P.,"Worship on Naga",The India Magazine, pp. 52-63, August,1984
Snakes played an important role in the mythology and folklore of Malayalees. Symbolic stones or Naga idols are their shrines. In Kerala several kaavus are dedicated to snakes, called Pampin kaavu.

Padmanabhan, S.,"A Temple Which Unifies the Four Cults",Kisan World, Vol.19, No.12, pp. 33-35,1992
Nagaraja temple at Nagarcoil of Kanyakumari district in Tamilnadu unifies the four streams of religion: Saivism, Vishnavism, Buddhism and Jainism.

Parida, R.C.,"Cobra",Science Reporter, Vol. 45, No.11, pp. 39 – 41,2008
One of the most fascinating snakes, cobras have spawned innumerable myths. But they are also under threat today. Conservationists working to protect snakes feel that education will help to keep snake populations from dying out as this will help people to appreciate the power and beauty of the snake. Snakes need all human help for their survival.

Ponnu, R.,"Cobra Cult in South India",Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. LXXIV, No. 1, pp. 22 - 30, The Mythic Society, Bangalore,1983
The snake cult occupied a prominent place in the life of the people of several countries. Snakes occupied a conspicuous niche in the Hindu pantheon. Snakes are of universal occurrence and importance in the Hindu mythology. The cobra cult was more popular in Tamilnadu, than any other part of India.

Ponnu, R.,"Hanuman Cult in South India",Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. LXXXI, No. 1- 2, pp. 107 - 125, The Mythic Society, Bangalore,1990
Worship of animals is more comprehensible in India. The origin of Hanuman cult is not clear. It is believed that monkey cult was originally associated with sun worship. Hanuman cult is one of the popular cults in South India. Hanuman cult gives a status of reverence to the whole race, and is in his honour, the monkeys are generally looked upon sacred.

Prashith Kekuda T.R , Nishanth B.C , Praveen Kumar S.V , Kamal D , Sandeep M , Megharaj H.K., ,"Cow Urine Concentrate : A potent agent with Antimicrobial and Anthelmintic activity",Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol. 3(5),1025-1027,,2010
Cow, often called Kamadhenu, has been considered as a sacred animal in India. The present study was undertaken to determine antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity of Cow urine concentrate (CUC) which is obtained by complete evaporation of cow urine. The antibacterial activity was tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was tested against species of Aspergillus by Agar well diffusion method. Anthelmintic activity was studied using adult Indian earthworm model. Marked inhibition of Gram positive bacteria was observed by the CUC. Inhibition of fungi was found to be dose dependent. Among fungi tested, A.niger was more affected than others. In anthelmintic assay, concentration dependent mortality of worms was observed and the effect by CUC was found to be more superior as compared to the standard drug Piperazine citrate. The antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of CUC may be due to the presence of constituents present in it. The CUC could be used in the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, opportunistic fungi and parasitic helminthes. Further studies on isolation of inhibitory components and in vivo experiments are to be carried out.

Ranjitsingh, M.K.,"Religious Sentiment and Wildlife",Beyond the Tiger- Portraits of Asian Wildlife, pp. 193-197, New Delhi,1997
Local community’s safeguards wildlife due to their religious sentiments. The practice has a long-term effect on the preservation of some wild animals and birds.

Rao, H.S.,"History of our Knowledge of the Indian Fauna Through the Ages",A Century of Natural History, pp. 54-74, Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay,1983
The legends of the tribal people and the undying traditions of the Hindu scriptures abound in references to a great variety of animals. The avataras referred to in the Hindu scriptures are each associated with a common animal. The animal wealth of India during the 3rd and 4th millennia B.C., Vedic period, Sangam literature, and Moghul period upto modern times is briefly discussed here.

Sarma, S.M.V.,"Our National Bird: The Peacock - Its Myths and Legends", Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society, Vol. LXI, No. 1-4,pp. 38 - 53,The Mythic Society, Bangalore,1970
Many poets from Bharatavarsa to Valmiki and others have sung about the peacock. The peacock was in the ancient myths of India looked upon as the vehicle of the goddess Sarasvati.

Singh, K.,"Myth and Reality",The Tiger Call, pp. 16-19, WWF India,1996
The tiger has played a major role in Indian mythology. The vahana (vehicle) of Shiva Durga and Lord Ayyappa is the tiger. Inspite of such sacredness, the tiger has been ruthlessly massacred and hunted over centuries. Hunting tigers was the symbol of male ego.

Sivapriyananda,"Serpents in Indian Imagination",The Indian Magazine, pp. 18-27,July,1992
Snake cult in India has an unbroken continuity that goes back to 3000 B.C. Snakes are associated with Hindu, Buddhist and Jain mythology.

Subaramaniya Pillai, G.,"Tree Worship and Its Ophiolatry",Annamalai University,1948
This is a pioneer work in tree and serpent worship. He scanned entire range of Tamil literature and gains an insight into the inner significance of the manifold rites and ceremonies that have grown round the tree and the serpent. The author has traced the origin of Sivalinga from the worship of Kanthu, the stump, Kanthali, a stone, was to be installed in its place and worshipped and he has discussed the importance of Kaval-maram, that is, of trees, which it was the duty of monarchs to foster and protect. He also discussed the serpent worship and its origin. The anthills under sacred trees are not demolished and thus they become the convenient abode of snakes. These reptiles eat the offerings sprinkled at the foot of trees. This plausibly engenders the belief that gods in the shape of serpents reside under the trees and appropriate the offerings proffered to them. It is significant to note that god Shiva is the Lord of demons snakes and plants.

Sundas, A.,"Sacred Black Bucks are a curse in Mehasana",The New Indian Express, February 24,1999
The Blackbuck is considered to be sacred and protected by the villagers of Mehsana in Kadi Taluka of Rajasthan. The animal comes under the category of vulnerable (Schedule I of red list of IUCN).

Thapar, V.,"The Cult of the Tiger",Sanctuary, Vol. XV, No. 1, pp. 14-25,1995
Hindus have worshiped tigers from very ancient times. Tiger images and legends occur throughout Hindu-dominated areas. Tiger hunting was a popular sport during olden days. Today the home of tigers have been ravaged and destroyed completely.

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