Fatehpur Sikri




Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh. Built during the second half of the 16th century by the Emperor Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri (the City of Victory) was the capital of the Mughal Empire for only some 10 years. The complex of monuments and temples, all in a uniform architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in India, the Jama Masjid.

Fatehpur Sikri, the “City of Victory” had only an ephemeral existence as the capital of the Mughul Empire. The Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) decided to construct it in 1571, on the same site where the birth of his son, the future Jahangir, was predicted by the wise Shaik Salim Chisti (1480-1572). The work, supervised by the great Moghul himself, was completed in 1573. But, in 1585, Akbar abandoned Fatehpur Sikri to fight against the Afghan tribes and choose a new capital: Lahore.

“The City of Victory” was the seat of the great Moghul court only once more during three months, in 1619, when Jahangir sought refuge there from the plague which devastated Agra. The site was definitely left thereafter, until its archaeological exploration in 1892.

This capital without future, situated ca. 40 kilometers from Agra was, however, considerably more than the fancy of a sovereign during the 14 years of its existence. The city, which the English traveller Ralph Fitch considered in 1585 as “considerably larger than London and more populous”, comprised a series of palaces, public buildings, mosques, as well as living areas for the court, the army, servants of the King and for an entire population whose history has not been recorded. Only one tiny part of the city (that where the large buildings are concentrated) has been until now , studied, visited and relatively well preserved.

Fatehpur Sikri, constructed on a rocky plateau, south- east of an artificial lake, created for the occasion and today partially dried up, is bounded on three sides by a wall of 6 kilometers, fortified by towers and pierced by 7 gates (the best preserved is the Gate of Agra, the second from the north). This spacious enclosure defines the limits of the new foundation rather than assuring its defense.

The majority of the important monuments are found to the north of the road from Darwaza to Agra constructed of red sandstone, they form a homogeneous group, even if the eclecticism of their style is evident and is based on borrowings from Hindu, Persian and Indo-Muslim traditions. Among the numerous palaces, gazebos, pavilions, etc., may be cited in particular:

  • Diwan-i-Am, the Hall of Public Audience, encircled by a series of porticos Which are broken up by the insertion of· the ,imperial box where Akbar, surrounded by his ministers and officers, meted out justice. This box communicates directly with
  • Daulat Khana, or the Imperial Palace, flanked to the north by
  • Diwan-i-Kas, or the Hall of Private Audience caned the “Jewel House”, a monument known for its central plan, which comprises an extraordinary capital surmounted by a circular balcony : the “throne”.

Other monuments of exceptional quality are the Panch Mahal, whose elevation of four recessed stories recalls certain Buddhist temples, the pavilion of Anup Talao, or the Turkish Sultana, the palace of Jodh Bai, the palace of Birbal., the caravan-serai and the problematic “stables”.

Owing to the piety of Akbar, many religious and votive monuments were constructed at Fatehpur Sikri. The great mosque (Jama Masjid), one of the most spacious of India (165x 133 meters) could accommodate ca. 10,000 faithful; it was completed in 1571-1572 and according to the dedicatory inscription deserves no less respect than that of Mecca. It incorporates, in the centre of the court, the tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti, an extraordinary masterpiece of sculpted decoration, further embellished under the reign of Jahangir. To the south of the court, the Buland Darwaza, completed in 1575, commemorating the victories (namely, the taking of Gujarat in 1572) to which the city, their monumental symbol,  owes its existence and its name.

Criterion (ii): the construction of this city has exercised a definite influence on the evolution of town planning, namely at Shahjahanabad (Old Dehli)

Criterion (iii): the city bears an exceptional testimony to the Moghul civilization at the end of the 16th century.

Criterion (iv): it offers a unique example of architectural ensembles of very high quality constructed between 1571 and 1585.





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